定语从句

顾名思义,定语从句可以在句子中充当形容词,用来修饰名词、代词或整个主句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用的词叫关系词。

一、关系词分为:关系代词和关系副词

关系代词主要有who、whom、whose、which、that、as等,它们分别代替前面的先行词,在定语从句中作主语、宾语或定语

1、who:指人,在从句中作主语(也可在从句中做宾语),例如:

He who laughs last laugs best.

2、whom:指人,只能在从句中作宾语,在口语或非正式文体中,whom可以省略或者用who来代替,但在介词后面以及非限制性定语从句中只能用whom,例如:

The people whom/who I work with are all friendly.

3、whose:谁的,作定语,后跟名词,先行词和后面的名词之间往往是从属关系,例如:

The house whose door is painted red belongs to the Browns.

4、which:指物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常常可以省略,例如:

English is a language which is easy to learn.

5、that:指人或指物。指人时,相当于who或whom;指物时,相当于which。在从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常常可以省略,例如:

The vase that I broke yesterday was very expensive.

6、as:正如,指人或指物,例如:

I've never heard such stories as he tells.

关系副词主要有when、where、why等,在定语从句中作状语

1、when:表时间,作时间状语,例如:

I still remember the day when I first came to this school,

2、where:表地点,作地点状语,例如:

I went back to the town where I was born.

3、why:表原因,作原因状语,例如:

The reason why he was punished is unkonwn to us.

无论是关系代词还是关系副词,都在定语从句中取代了先行词,因此,先行词在定语从句中不再出现。

二、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,用于修饰和限定先行词。如果去掉,主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。书写时不用逗号与先行词分开,例如:

I have a book which teaches English grammar.

非限制性定语从句

非限制性定语从句在意义上只是一个附加修饰语,对先行词或主句作些附加的说明。如果去掉,主句的意思仍然清楚。书写时往往用逗号与先行词分开,例如:

I, who am your friend, will share the work with you.

三、定语从句的省略

当关系代词在从句中作主语而且从句中的谓语动词是(现在)进行时态时,关系代词及助动词be都可以省略,例如:

The dog carrying that basket is mine.

关系代词在从句中作宾语时往往可以省略,例如:

These are the letters I Typed.

 

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